When John Maynard Keynes likened Jan Tinbergen's early work in econometrics to black magic and alchemy, he was expressing a widely held view of a new discipline. However, even after half a century of practical work and theorizing by some of the most accomplished social scientists, Keynes' comments are still repeated today. This book assesses the foundations and development of econometrics and sets out a basis for the reconstruction of the foundations of econometric inference by examining the various interpretations of probability theory that underlie econometrics. – Table of Contents: Introduction. 1. The philosophy of induction; 2. Probability and indifference: Intermezzo: a formal scheme of reference; 3. Reactive frequency and induction; 4. Probability and belief; 5. The theory of simplicity; 6. From probability to econometrics; 7. Econometric modelling; 8. In search of homogeneity; 9. Positivism and the aims of econometrics; 10. Probability, econometrics and truth.